Models of sustainable development, from least to most radical:
- ISO 14000 and ISO 19011 standards
- Natural Capitalism conserving natural capital
- Natural Step taking the above to their limits with feedback mechanisms
- industrial ecology where any waste is input to some other process near by
- Zero Waste strategies where it is literally not allowed to generate waste
The sustainable trades and sustainable industries that employ them are a recent focus of research in these areas. The styles of capital and the means of managing and auditing capital assets is increasingly much more clear, even governments commit to value reporting, e.g. well-being or quality of life measures that take sustainability into account to a degree, or ecosystem health measures that really put natural capital first. Private enterprise lags behind in some ways until Consumerium Services can tighten it up.