To refer is to provide a link or connection to something else by way of argument. For instance, a reference to a well-known theorem in a mathematics proof, or to a well-known troll in a User page". Such references are usually "loaded" with meaning.
To refer is to deliberately neither infer nor defer: by referring to some other set of claims, one is NOT deferring to their authority but inviting comment and debate. One is also NOT justifying the internal logic of any of the other's argument, simply stating that the argument exists in that form.
Naming conventions are the most basic questions in reference and identity.